Programming Languages

A small(!) selection:

Ada: 'Military Standard Ada Programming Language', American National Standards Institute Inc., 1815A, Feb. 1983.
Algol-60: J. W. Backus et al, 'Revised Report on the Algorithmic Language ALGOL 60', IFIP, CACM, 6(1), pp.1-17, doi:10.1145/366193.366201, Jan. 1963.
"Here is a language so far ahead of its time, that it was not only an improvement on its predecessors, but also on nearly all its successors." — C. A. R. Hoare, keynote address SIGACT/SIGPLAN POPL, Oct 1973.
Algol-68: A. van Wijngaarden et al, 'Revised Report on the Algorithmic Language ALGOL 68', ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 12(5), pp.1-70, doi:10.1145/954652.1781176, May 1977.
APL: K. E. Iverson, 'A Programming Language', Wiley, isbn:0471430145, 1962.
Famous for "one liners" that can compute almost anything. Also see J.
BCPL: A. M. Richards, 'The Portability of the BCPL Compiler', Software Practice and Experience, 1(2), pp.135-146, doi:10.1002/spe.4380010204, 1971.
Also see CPL.
C: B. Kernighan and D. Ritchie, 'The C Programming Language', Prentice Hall, isbn:0131101633, isbn13:978-0131101630, 1978, and...
C++: B. Stroustrup, 'The C++ Programming Language, (4th ed 2014) isbn:0321958322, isbn13:978-0321958327, Addison Wesley, 2000.
CPL: D. W. Barron et al, 'The Main Features of CPL', the Computer Journal, 6(2) pp.134-143, doi:10.1093/comjnl/6.2.134, July 1963.
Also see BCPL.
Fortran: J. Backus, 'Fortran', 1954.
"I don't know what the language of the year 2000 will look like, but it will be called Fortran." I have seen this attributed to Seymour Cray, Tony Hoare & many others — LA. Also see wikip.
FP Functional Programming (Haskell, Lisp, SML, ...), see FP and Lambda.
Haskell: See FP.
Icon: R. E. Griswold and M. T. Griswold, 'The Icon Programming Language', Prentice Hall, (3rd ed 1996) isbn:1573980013, isbn13:978-1573980012, 1990.
Icon really has control mechanisms!
J: K. E. Iverson, 'J Introduction and Dictionary', Iverson-Software-Inc., 33 Major St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 2K9, isbn:1-895721-06-7, 1993.
Also see APL.
Java: J. Gosling, B. Joy and G. Steele, 'The Java Language Specification', Addison Wesley, (3rd ed 2005) isbn:0321246780, isbn13:9780321246783, 1997.
JavaScript: D. Flanagan, 'JavaScript, the Definitive Guide', O'Reilly, isbn:0596101996, isbn13:978-0596101992, 1986.
Pascal: N. Wirth, 'The Programming Language Pascal', Acta Informatica, 1, pp.35-63, doi:10.1007/BF00264291, 1971.
Prolog see Prolog.
Python: G. van Rossum and F. L. Drake jr., 'Python Language Reference Manual', Network Theory Ltd., isbn:0954161785, isbn13:978-0954161781, 2003.
Snobol: R. Griswold, J. Poage and I. Polonsky, 'The Snobol 4 Programming Language', Prentice-Hall, isbn:0138153736, 1971.
StriNg Oriented symBOlic Language.   R. E. Griswold, 'A History of the SNOBOL Programming Languages', ACM Sigplan Notices, 4(8), pp.275-308, doi:10.1145/960118.808393, Aug. 1978. Also see Icon.