# Unit 6: The Higher-order fold Functions

## The higher-order function foldr

Many recursively-defined functions on lists in Haskell show a common pattern of definition. For example, consider the usual definitions of the functions sum (which adds together the numerical elements of a list) and product (which multiples together the numerical elements of a list). These are shown, respectively, at the tops of Figures 1 and 2. The similarity between these two functions is made even more apparent if we evaluate them using source reduction. Doing this on the argument [3, 7, 2] is shown below the function definitions in Figures 1 and 2. This common pattern of definition is captured by means of the higher-order function foldr.

Another way of bringing out what foldr does is to represent its final list argument as a binary tree as shown on the left of Figure 3. Here the expression foldr (#) u [x1, x2, x3] is being evaluated. By looking at this it is clear that the cons nodes have been replaced by the binary infix operator # and the empty list by the value u.

The graphical depiction of what foldr does shown in Figure 3 should also make it clear that foldr (:) [] is equivalent to the identity function id. The standard definition of the higher-order function foldr is as follows:

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b
foldr op u []     = u
foldr op u (x:xs) = op x (foldr op u xs)

Intuitively, what foldr does can be shown like this, where # is a binary infix operator:

foldr (#) u [x1, x2, ..., xn] = x1 # (x2 # (...(xn # u)...))

A lot of functions can be defined using foldr, though other definitions are sometimes preferred for reasons of efficiency. Here are the definitions of some common functions using foldr:

and, or :: [Bool] -> Bool
and = foldr (&&) True
or  = foldr (||) False

sum, product :: Num a => [a] -> a
sum     = foldr (+) 0
product = foldr (*) 1

concat :: [[a]] -> [a]
concat = foldr (++) []

length :: [a] -> Int
length = foldr oneplus 0
where oneplus i j = 1 + j

reverse :: [a] -> [a]
reverse = foldr snoc []
where snoc x xs = xs ++ [x]

## Defining map and filter with foldr

It is even possible to define the higher-order functions map and filter by means of foldr:

map f = foldr ((:) . f) []

filter pred = foldr ((++) . sel) []
where
sel x
| pred x    = [x]
| otherwise = []

## fold-map fusion

In the course of writing a Haskell program you might find that you define a function which applies foldr to the result of applying map to some argument. fold-map fusion lets you replace such a definition by one that only involves foldr:

foldr op u . map f = foldr (op . f) u

## The higher-order scanr function

A segment of a list is a list consisting of zero or more adjacent elements of the original list whose order is preserved. Thus, the segments of [1, 2, 3] are [], [1], [2], [3], [1, 2], [2, 3] and [1, 2, 3]. Note that [1, 3] is not a segment of [1, 2, 3]. The tail segments of a list consist of the empty list and all the segments of the original list which contain its final element. Thus, the tail segments of [1, 2, 3] are [], [3], [2, 3] and [1, 2, 3]. It is straightforward to define a Haskell function tails which returns all the tail segments of a list. Note that tails produces the list of tail segments in decreasing order of length, starting with the list xs itself:

tails :: [a] -> [[a]]
tails [] = [[]]
tails xs = [xs] ++ tails (tail xs)

The function scanr applies foldr to every tail segment of a list, beginning with the longest:

scanr (#) u [x1, x2, x3]
=  map (foldr (#) u) (tails [x1, x2, x3])
= [foldr (#) u [x1, x2, x3],
foldr (#) u [x2, x3],
foldr (#) u [x3],
foldr (#) u []]
= [x1 # (x2 # (x3 # u)), x2 # (x3 # u), x3 # u, u]

## Folding non-empty lists with foldr1

The function foldr1 can be defined like this:

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a
foldr1 op [x] = x
foldr1 op (x:xs) = op x (foldr1 op xs)

Intuitively, what foldr1 does can be shown like this, where # is a binary infix operator:

foldr1 (#) [x1, x2, ..., xn] = x1 # (x2 # (...(xn-1 # xn)...))

Using foldr1 it is easy to define a function that finds the maximum element of a list:

maxlist = foldr1 max

Here, max is a predefined Haskell function which returns the larger of its two arguments:

max :: Ord a => a -> a -> a
max x y
| x < y   = y
otherwise = x

## The higher-order function foldl

The higher-order function foldl can be defined like this:

foldl :: (a -> b -> a) -> a -> [b] -> a
foldl op u []     = u
foldl op u (x:xs) = foldl op (op u x) xs

Intuitively, what foldl does can be shown like this, where # is a binary infix operator:

foldl (#) u [x1, x2, ..., xn] = (...((u # x1) # x2) # ...) # xn

Many functions can be defined by means of foldl, though other definitions are sometimes preferred for reasons of efficiency. Here are the definitions of several common functions using foldl:

and, or :: [Bool] -> Bool
and = foldl (&&) True
or  = foldl (||) False

sum, product :: Num a => [a] -> a
sum     = foldl (+) 0
product = foldl (*) 1

concat :: [[a]] -> [a]
concat = foldl (++) []

length :: [a] -> Int
length = foldl plusone 0
where plusone i j = i + 1

reverse :: [a] -> [a]
reverse = foldl (flip (:)) []

Here flip is a predefined Haskell function: flip op x y = op y x. The definition of reverse in terms of foldl is more efficient than the obvious definition:

reverse :: [a] -> [a]
reverse []     = []
reverse (x:xs) = reverse xs ++ [x]

## Duality theorems

The first duality theorem states that, if # is associative and u is a unit for #, then foldr (#) u xs is equivalent to foldl (#) u xs. Recall that a binary infix operator # is associative if and only if x # (y # z) = (x # y) # z and an element u is a unit for a binary infix operator # if and only if x # u = u and u # x = u. The second duality theorem states that foldr (#) u xs is equivalent to foldl (◊) u xs, if x # (y ◊ z) = (x # y) ◊ z and x # u = u ◊ x. Note that the first duality theorem is a special case of the second. The third duality theorem simply states:

foldr op u xs = foldl (flip op) u (reverse xs)

## The higher-order scanl function

The initial segments of a list are all the segments of that list containing its first element together with the empty list. Thus, the initial segments of [1, 2, 3] are [], [1], [1, 2] and [1, 2, 3]. It is straightforward to define a Haskell function inits which returns all the initial segments of a list. Note that inits returns the list of initial segments of xs in increasing order of length, starting with the empty list:

inits :: [a] -> [[a]]
inits [] = [[]]
inits xs = inits (init xs) ++ [xs]

Here, init is a predefined Haskell function which removes the last element from a non-empty list:

init [1, 2, 3, 4] = [1, 2, 3]

The function scanl applies foldl to every initial segment of a list, starting with the empty list:

scanl (#) u [x1, x2, x3]
=  map (foldl (#) u) (inits [x1, x2, x3])
= [foldl (#) u [],
foldl (#) u [x1],
foldl (#) u [x1, x2],
foldl (#) u [x1, x2, x3]]
= [u, u # x1, (u # x1) # x2, ((u # x1) # x2) # x3]

The infinite list of factorials can then be defined straightforwardly as scanl (*) 1 [2 .. ].

## Folding non-empty lists with foldl1

The function foldl1 can be defined in terms of foldl like this:

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a
foldl1 op (x:xs) = foldl op x xs

Intuitively, what foldl1 does can be shown like this, where # is a binary infix operator:

foldl1 (#) [x1, x2, ..., xn] = (...((x1 # x2) # x3)... # xn-1) # xn